Proper land preparation and care is important for successful peanut production. The first tillage should take place 3-6 weeks before planting and should occur at a depth of 20-30 cm in the soil. Make sure to obtain high-quality seeds for sowing. Before sowing apply a rhizobium inoculum to encourage rhizobium development and nitrogen fixation. Depending on the type of peanut (Bunchy or Spreading) there should be a 10-15cm distance between plants and a 60 cm distance between rows.
Peanuts grow best in well-drained, loose textured soils, such as light, sandy loam soils. While peanuts can grow in varying soil conditions these are not favorable due to the chance of excessive water retention. The peanut forming pegs have difficulty penetrating through denser soils such as clay soils. The soil should be aerated and contain moderate amounts of organic matter. Peanuts thrive in slightly acidic soils but will grow in any soil with a pH of 5.9-7.( 5.5 TO 7.0 )
Warm and moist climatic conditions with full sun are favorable for maximizing peanut production. The average optimal daily temperature is around 30 degrees celsius with a minimum 100-day ideal temperature growing season being required for successful peanut production. Temperature is the greatest limiting factor in peanut production, while peanuts can tolerate cool and wet climates, these conditions will favor crop disease.( LONG DAYS PROMOTE VEGETATIVE GROWTH AT THE EXPENSE OF REPRODUCTIVE GROWTH RATE, DECREASED PODS , DECREASED DURATION OF POD FILLING AND ULTIMATELY DECREASED YIELD )