- Black & Green Gram

Black & Green Gram Black & Green Gram

Groundnut Bud Necrosis Virus

Virus

GBNV


In a Nutshell

  • Necrotic spots and irregularly shaped lesions on leaves and petioles. Stunted growth with short internodes and short auxiliary shoots.
  • Top bud is killed and necrosis spreads downwards.

Symptoms

The primary symptom of the disease is a mild chlorotic mottle on young leaflets, which later develop into chlorotic and necrotic ring spots and streaks. The necrosis later extends to petioles, and upward the stems to terminal buds, resulting in the decay of floral structures, hence the name bud necrosis disease. This scenario is favored by moderately high temperatures. Infected plants show stunted growth, general chlorosis, proliferation of new shoots and deformation of new leaves. Pegs can be mottled and discolored and contain small, shriveled seeds with spots on them. Yield losses are observed when plants are infected at early stages.

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Hosts

Trigger

Peanut bud necrosis disease is caused by a virus. The infestation of plants is persistent and depends on a species of insects (Thrips palmi) that feeds on plant tissues and sap. In the absence of peanut plants, the thrips feed on and infest alternative hosts in or around the field, for example southern marigold (Tagetes minuta), and subterranean clover (Trifoleum subterraneum). Hence, the removal of these plants is particularly important to control the insect population. Planting densely also discourages thrips from landing on the groundnut crop.

Organic Control

Spraying with plant extracts of sorghum or coconut leaf 20 days after sowing is effective in controlling thrips populations.

Chemical Control

Always consider a integrated approach with preventive measures and possible biological treatments. Chemical treatment of viral infections is not possible. However, some treatments are available for the control of the thrips vectors. Spraying insecticides like dimethoate or thiamethoxam 30-35 days after sowing as a preventive measure can significantly reduce the incidence of bud necrosis. Seed treatment with imidacloprid @ 2ml/kg seed is also effective against thrips.

Preventive Measures

  • Grow resistant varieties if available in your market.
  • Early sowing may avoid population peaks of the insect vectors.
  • Ensure high planting density to restrict the growth of the vector.
  • Intercrop with maize and pearl millet to limit the movement of the vector.
  • Avoid groundnut cultivation adjacent to the crops that are susceptible to bud necrosis, such as green gram or black gram.
  • Remove weeds and hosts that favor the growth of the vector.
  • Remove all plant residues from the field 6 weeks after spotting the first symptoms.

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