- Mango

Mango Mango

Mango Malformation

Fungus

Fusarium mangiferae


In a Nutshell

  • Abnormal development of shoots, leaves and flowers.
  • Bunchy appearance.
  • Stunted growth.
  • Two categories of malformation: vegetative and floral malformation.
  • Disorder is widespread in flowers and vegetative shoots.

Symptoms

The disease is caused by the fungal species Fusarium mangiferae. The vegetative malformation is commonly found on young seedlings. The seedlings produce small shootlets with small scaly leaves, giving it a bunch like an appearance on the shoot apex. Seedlings remain stunted and eventually die. Variation in the panicle can be seen in the malformation of the inflorescence. Heavily malformed panicles are compact and overcrowded due to larger flowers. Affected plants develop abnormality with dense shoots and flowers. Growing points such as leaf and stem buds produce misshapen shoots with short internodes and brittle leaves. Leaves are significantly smaller than those of healthy plants. Normal and malformed growth may be present on a plant simultaneously.

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Hosts

Trigger

The disease is mainly spread via infected plant material. Excessive soil moisture, mite infestation, fungal infection, virus, herbicides and other toxic compounds aids in the production of fungus. Deficiency of Iron, Zinc and Copper can also cause malformation. The disease spreads slowly within affected orchards. Temperatures of 10 - 15°C support the growth during flowering.

Organic Control

Use leaf extract of Datura stramonium (Alkaloids), Calotropis gigantea and neem tree (Azadirachtin) to reduce the infection. Trichoderma harzianum is also effective in controlling the pathogen's growth. Diseased plants should be destroyed. Use disease-free planting material. Scion sticks from infected trees should not be used.

Chemical Control

Always consider an integrated approach with preventive measures together with biological treatments, if available. Captan 0.1% helps in controlling the spread of the disease. Spray insecticides of folidol or metasystox as a control measure. Spray carbendazim 0.1% at 10, 15, or 30-day intervals during the flowering stage. Naphthalene Acetic Acid (NAA) at 100 or 200 ppm reduces the incidence of the disease in the following season. Spraying with trace elements of Zinc, Boron, and Copper before bloom and after fruit harvesting has proved to control or minimize the incidence of malformation.

Preventive Measures

  • Select disease-free seedlings for planting.
  • Monitor your orchard regularly for any signs of deformed plant parts.
  • Pruning of malformed panicles can reduce the intensity of malformation of inflorescence during the subsequent years.
  • Remove and destroy the affected plant parts.
  • Spraying with trace elements of Zinc, Boron, and copper before bloom and after fruit harvesting has proved to control or minimize the incidence of malformation.
  • Increasing nitrogen doses reduced panicle malformation in a case study.
  • Good hygiene management of the orchard and tools is necessary to avoid the fungus to spread.
  • Clean your pruning equipment thoroughly to reduce the spread of the disease.

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