Plowing at a depth of about 35 cm is recommended before planting. It helps to incorporate remaining plants into the soil, which improves soil texture. Weeds should be checked regularly, and after harvesting the field should be immediately plowed again to ensure an empty field for sowing in the next spring. A good sowing depth is 4-5 cm for seeds. About 25 kg of cotton seeds per hectare are recommended, with the average application of about 200 kg of a balanced fertilizer per hectare. In the sowing line, an average distance of 7.5 cm between seeds should be kept. Placing 1-2 healthy beehives per 1 hectare of cotton is beneficial. In areas with little rainfall, cotton fields should be irrigated before sowing and after blooming until boll splitting.
Cotton can grow in almost all soils, provided they are well-drained. However, for achieving high yields, sandy loam soils with enough clay, organic matter, and a moderate concentration of nitrogen and phosphorus are ideal. A gentle slope can be helpful as it promotes water drainage in a controlled direction. A soil pH between 5.8 and 8 is required for good cotton growth, 6 to 6.5 being the optimum range.
The cotton plant needs a long frost-free period, a lot of heat and plenty of sunshine for optimal growth. A warm and humid climate with moderate rainfall from 60cm to 120 cm is preferred. Only a few cotton seeds will germinate, if the soil temperature is below 15°C. During active growth, the ideal air temperature is 21-37°C. The average cotton plant can survive in temperatures up to 43°C for short periods without great damage. Frequent rainfalls during the maturing stage (summer) and during the days of harvest (autumn) reduce yield in cotton cultivation.