Anthracnose of Grape - Grape

Grape

Anthracnose of Grape

Elsinoe ampelina


In a Nutshell

  • Small brown spots on young leaves.
  • Larger gray and dry patches.
  • Patches fall out and create hole in leaf.
  • Stems and shoots are also affected.
  • Ashy gray spots with brown margins on fruit.

Symptoms

The fungus attacks all green parts of the vine, leaves, shoots, stems and tendrils. However, it is the young, rapidly growing tissues that are most affected. On the leaves, small brown spots develop on the upper lamina. As they enlarge, they become irregular and their center gradually turns gray and necrotic. Eventually, citrus greening diseasethe dead tissue falls out, creating a shot-hole effect. The same type of spots and lesions appear on stems and shoots and can girdle them, resulting in the formation of cankers and dieback. Small, round, purple spots also develop on the fruits. They gradually expand and turn sunken and ashy gray with brown margins. As they cover the skin, the berries wither and can drop or become mummified on the cluster. The distinctive spots with ashy gray centers confer to the disease its common name, bird’s eye rot.

Hosts

1 Hosts

Trigger

The symptoms are caused by the fungus Elsinoe ampelina. It overwinters in fungal structures on the shoots and the bark of the infected vines. During the spring, it starts to produce spores that are released and dispersed by rain splashes. Wind and rain carry the spores to young, developing leaves or shoots. Periods of prolonged tissue wetness (12 hours or more) and temperatures from 2-32°C favor the production and germination of the spores. The higher the temperature and the humidity, the faster infection will occur and the sooner the symptoms will appear. Cool weather slows the growth of the fungus. Leaf defoliation and direct fruit damage have a serious impact on the yield and quality of the berries.

Biological Control

The application of liquid lime sulfur or copper sprays in early spring, prior to bud break, has been used to avoid a high incidence of the pathogen. Make sure the fungicides are permitted within the organic certification program.

Chemical Control

Always consider an integrated approach with preventive measures and biological treatments if available. Anthracnose can be controlled if good cultural practices are followed along with the timely use of protective fungicide sprays. A spray of liquid lime sulfur or Bordeaux mixture just as the buds are breaking will help reduce anthracnose problems. Pesticides registered to protect the developing new growth and fruit are captan, chlorothalonil and mancozeb. Spray at 2-week intervals from bud break until the fruit begins to color.

Preventive Measures

  • Choose sites with suitable sun exposure and good air circulation.
  • Use more tolerant varieties, if available.
  • Make sure to keep a wide distance between vines.
  • For homegrown grapes, use leaf mulch or fine bark to cover infected debris.
  • Remove any wild grapes near the vineyard.
  • Monitor the vines and remove fruit or plant parts that show sign of the disease.
  • Prune the vines in early winter during dormancy.
  • Remove plant residues from the vineyard.
  • Plow field and bury plant residues and berries.

Try the Plantix Magic now!

Free Crop Diagnosis on WhatsApp

Just send us a picture of your crop on WhatsApp and our Crop Doctor will help you to solve your problem. Convince yourself, it's free!

Get free diagnosis on WhatsApp!