- Banana

Banana Banana

Yellow and Black Sigatoka

Fungus

Mycosphaerella sp.


In a Nutshell

  • First, brown leaf spots.
  • Narrow, dark streaks with yellow halo parallel to leaf veins.
  • Large necrotic areas.

Symptoms

First symptoms can be found on the 3rd and 4th open leaf for both Sigatoka fungi. Tiny, light yellow specks (1-2 mm long) appear on the upper leaf blade, parallel to the secondary veins (Yellow Sigatoka) and reddish-brown flecks on the underside (Black Sigatoka). These specks later develop into narrow, brown or dark green spots with a spindle shape. These lesions expand further parallel to the veins and form oblong rusty red streaks with water-soaked centers and yellow halos (4 to 12 mm in length). The centers of the streaks gradually turn gray brown to brown, a sign of necrosis. Along the leaf margins, they coalesce to form large, black or brown necrotic lesions surrounded by yellow halos. The cracking of the leaves gives them a ragged appearance.

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Hosts

Trigger

The symptoms of Yellow and Black Sigatoka are caused by the fungi Mycosphaerrela sp. and occur throughout the world. It is one of the most destructive diseases of banana. The fungus survives in dead or living plant tissues, and produces spores that are spread by wind or rain splashes. Another way of disease transmission is via the movement of infected living plant material, plant trash or contaminated fruits. It is more frequent at higher altitudes and cooler temperatures, or during rainy seasons in subtropical growing regions with warm environments and high relative humidity. The optimal growth temperature for the fungus is around 27°C and young leaves are the most susceptible. The disease reduces plant productivity, which in turn affects the size of the bunch and shortens the ripening time of the fruit.

Organic Control

Biological control with bio-fungicides based on Trichoderma atroviride have the potential to hinder the disease and are being tested for possible field applications. Bordeaux spray applied on pruning sites can hinder the propagation of the disease on these plant parts.

Chemical Control

Always consider an integrated approach with preventive measures together with biological treatments if available. Fungicides containing mancozeb, calixin or chlorothalonil can be applied as foliar sprays when disease is not widespread. Rotations of systemic fungicides such as propiconazole, fenbuconazole or azoxystrobin also work fine. The rotation is important to prevent the build up of resistance in the fungus.

Preventive Measures

  • Use resistant varieties (note that this can negatively impact taste).
  • Avoid hard soils such as heavy clay soils and high soil moisture through good drainage.
  • Plant in locations exposed to the morning sun or prevailing winds to keep the leaves as dry as possible.
  • Leave sufficient space between plants to ensure good ventilation.
  • Do not use overhead irrigation.
  • Clear fields and surroundings of weeds.
  • Ensure a balanced nutrition of the plants.
  • Use fertilizers high in potassium to minimize the infestation.
  • Apply urea as nitrogen source to compromise fungal growth on the soil.
  • Cut off infected leaves, then burn them outside of the plantation or bury them.
  • Remove plant debris.

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