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Sudden Death Syndrome

Sudden Death Syndrome

Fusarium virguliforme


In a Nutshell

    Scattered, diffuse, yellow spots appear between leaf veinsSpots grow into necrotic areas that may fall out the leafSigns of rot in internal tissue of stem and root indicated by brown discolorationFlowers may abort and pods may not develop or fill

Hosts: %1$s

· Soybean


Small, pale green circular spots appear on leaves during flowering stage. Interveinal chlorosis and later necrosis show on leaves. As the disease progresses, the necrotic tissue between the veins may die and fall out, giving the leaves a ragged appearance. Leaves can eventually dry, curl or drop off but the petiole remains attached to the stem. Signs of rotting (brown discoloration) appear in the internal tissues of the lower stem and main root. Flowers may abort and pods may not develop or fill.


The fungus Fusarium virguliforme survives as spores in soil or on infested crop residues. It infects and colonizes plants through the root early in the vegetative stage but symptoms may become apparent only during flowering. The infection is favored by cool and wet soils, rainy weather conditions, densely planted fields, poor drainage or compacted soils. Wounds of soybean cyst nematodes, pests and mechanical injuries from poor handling practices also favor the infection risk.

Biological Control

To this day no biological control of the fungus is known

Chemical Control

Always consider an integrated approach with preventive measures together with biological treatments if available. Foliar fungicides are not effective because the fungus remains in the root system. Instead, apply specific fungicides, such as fluopyram to the seeds.

Preventive Measures

    Use high quality certified seedsPlant resilient tolerant or resistant varietiesPlant early in the season to avoid adverse weather conditionsLeave sufficient space between plants to ensure good ventilationRotate with non-host crops for the given periodMonitor your field for first symptomsProvide good drainagePlow the field to avoid soil compaction