()
  • Filter by:
  • Filter by fungi
  • Filter by virus
  • Filter by mite
  • Filter by bacteria
  • Filter by insect
  • Filter by deficiency

Sooty Mold

Sooty Mold

Capnodium, Fumago, Scorias spp

fungi

In a Nutshell

    Dark gray to black mold primarily on the surface of fruits, sometimes also on leaves, twigs and stems, generally on plants that have previously been fed upon by insectsSooty mold feeds on honeydew

Hosts: %1$s

· Citrus · Mango · Papaya

Symptoms

Sooty mold can be found on mango trees and any other plants that have previously been fed upon by insects. The mold actually grows on honeydew, a sticky, sugary secretion that is produced by insects to attract fellow bugs. Using the honeydew as a food source, the mold gradually covers the surface of the affected plant part, coloring it in various shades of black. Sooty molds are non-parasitic and non-pathogenic fungi, so they do not colonize plant tissues or trigger symptoms. However, they alter the ability of the plant to perform photosynthesis and to exchange gases with the atmosphere. Severely infected leaves may die and fall off, thereby affecting the plants growth and survival.

Trigger

Phloem-feeding insects like the mango leafhopper (Amritodus atkinsoni), whiteflies, aphids and many others are associated with the disease as they feed on plant sap. In the process of feeding, honeydew is secreted on the surface of the respective plant, thereby creating the perfect medium for sooty mold to grow on. Honeydew can drip down on neighboring leaves or plants, thus spreading the fungus further. The fungi survive as mold or as spores on plant parts, tools or transport vehicles. Insects also spread the mold from plant to plant. Ants, for example, tend to protect the sooty mold colonies for their own benefit.

Biological Control

Use formulations of neem oil, which is an organic broad spectrum compound, to ward off whiteflies, aphids, scales, ants, and mealy bugs. Neem oil also reduces the growth of the fungus itself. Insecticidal soap or dish soap (e.g. one tablespoon per 5 liters of water) can be sprayed on affected plants. After letting the soap solution settle on the plants, it can be rinsed off, thereby removing the mold.

Chemical Control

Always consider an integrated approach with preventive measures together with biological treatments if available. Synthetic insecticides of the organophosphate family such as acephate, malathion, or diazinon can be used to prevent insects from feeding on the mango tree.

Preventive Measures

    Sooty mold is less likely to grow on plants exposed to the sun and open spacesTherefore, make sure to provide enough distance between trees and sufficient sunlightPrevent plant-sap sucking insects from injuring the plantsBuild physical barriers around trees to prevent ants from reaching the mango treesFertilize and water the trees sufficiently to assure an optimal natural resistance of the trees to phloem-feeding parasites