Rust on Blackgram

Disease

Rust on Blackgram

Uromyces phaseoli

fungi

In a Nutshell

    Small, round reddish-brown pustules appear on the underside of leavesPustules later merge into larger areas and appear on upper leaf surfaceLinear, dark brown areas appear later in the seasonInfection might be visible on petioles, pods and stemLeaves dry, shrivel and fall off, leading to defoliation and yield loss

Hosts: %1$s

· Gram

Symptoms

Initial symptoms appear as small, round, reddish brown pustules growing among specks of white fungal growth, usually on the lower surface of the leaf. The pustules can appear in small groups and later merge into larger areas on the leaf blade. Additionally, linear, dark brown areas appear later in the season. Heavy infection can affect the upper leaf surface, resulting in leaves covered by pustules. Leaves become dry, shrivel and fall off. At this stage of the disease, petioles, pods and stems may be affected, too. Intense defoliation results in severe yield losses.

Trigger

The pathogen survives in crop debris in the soil or on alternative hosts. Primary infection is by way of spores being splashed from the soil onto the older leaves at the base of the plant. Secondary spreading from plant to plant is wind-driven. The inception of the infection and the dispersal is favored by warm temperatures (21 to 26° C), humid and cloudy weather combined with heavy dews during the night.

Biological Control

Plant extracts of Salvia officinalis and Potentilla erecta have a good effect as a protective measure against fungal growth once the infection has been discovered.

Chemical Control

Always consider an integrated approach with preventive measures together with biological treatments if available. Chemical treatment may not be viable if the infection was spotted at later stages. If fungicides are needed, products containing mancozeb, carbendazim, propiconazole, copper or sulfur compounds can be used as foliar spray application. Start the application straight after the first appearance of an infection and repeat it after 15 days.

Preventive Measures

    Use seeds from healthy plants or certified pathogen-free seedsPlant tolerant or resistant varieties if available in your areaAvoid planting alternative hosts in the vicinty of your fieldRemove alternative hosts and weeds from your fieldMonitor and remove infected plants partsEnsure crop rotation with non-host crops every three to four yearsPlow deep and remove plant debris by burning or plowing it




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