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Purple Stem Borer

Purple Stem Borer

Sesamia inferens

insect

In a Nutshell

    Caterpillars bore holes into the stems or at the base of the inflorescencesExit holes can be observed on these plant partsThe lack of water and nutrients causes wilt of the affected tissuesWhen opened longitudinally, the stems show ‘dead hearts’ symptoms, with the presence of larvae and frass inside

Hosts: %1$s

· Wheat · Rice · Maize

Symptoms

The damage to crops is principally through the feeding activity of the caterpillars. They bore into the stems or the base of the panicle and feed on the internal substance, blocking the transport of nutrients and water. Exit holes of the caterpillar can also be observed on stems and panicles. The lack of supplies causes wilt of the affected plant parts. When opened longitudinally, the stems show ‘dead hearts’ symptoms, with the presence of larvae and frass inside.

Trigger

Larvae overwinter as pupae inside stems or plant debris in the soils and emerge as adults during the spring, when weather conditions are benign. The moths are small, stout and light brown with a hairy head and body. Forewings are straw colored with a marked golden margin. Hindwings are translucent white with yellowish veins. Females lay clusters of rounded, pale and yellowish green eggs in several rows behind the leaf sheaths to protect them from predators. Caterpillars are about 20 to 25 mm long, pinkish in color, with red-brown heads and no stripes. They bore into the stem and feed on the internal tissues.

Biological Control

Several parasitoid wasps of the groups Telenomeus and Trichogramma are depositing their eggs into the eggs of Sesamia inferens and help to control the population. The larvae are also parasitized by the wasps Apanteles flavipes, Bracon chinensis and Sturmiopsis inferens. Finally, the pupae are attacked by species of Xanthopinpla and Tetrastichus. Bio-insecticides based on extracts of the fungus Beauveria bassiana and the bacteria Bacillus thuringiensis are also effective against purple stem borer.

Chemical Control

Always consider an integrated approach with preventive measures together with biological control treatments if available. Products containing fenthion, fenitrothion, quinalphos, phosphamidon and granules of lindane can be applied to the foliage to control pest population. Foliar treatment with endosulfan and carbofuran also works.

Preventive Measures

    Plant more resilient varieties if availablePlant synchronously with other farmers to avoid insect population build-upsPlant varieties with the same maturity featuresEarly planting can also help to avoid peak populationsPlant densely to hinder the moth to get into the foliageMonitor the fields regularly and remove infected plant partsEnsure an adequate level of nitrogen and a timely applicationPull out weeds in and around the fieldEnsure good water managementRemove and destroy crop debris after harvestPlan a long-term crop rotation with non-host plants