Leaf Scald of Rice

Disease

Leaf Scald of Rice

Monographella albescens

fungi

In a Nutshell

    lesions produce a zonate pattern of alternating light tan and dark brown starting from leaf tipsThe continuous enlargement of lesions result in the scalding of the leaf blade

Hosts: %1$s

· Rice

Symptoms

The symptoms associated with leaf scald vary according to the stage of growth, variety and plant density. In most cases, grey-green, water-soaked lesions start to develop on the tips or edges of leaf. Later, the lesions spread and produce a zonate pattern of alternating light tan and dark brown starting from the leaf tips or the edges. The continuous enlargement of lesions result in blighting of a large part of the leaf blade. The affected areas dry out giving the leaf a scalded appearance. In some countries, lesions rarely develop the zonate pattern and only the scalding symptom is evident.

Trigger

Disease development usually occurs late in the season on mature leaves and is favored by wet weather, high nitrogen fertilization, and close spacing. Rates of nitrogen above 40 kg/ha and above result in a greater incidence of leaf scald. It develops faster in wounded than in unwounded leaves.The sources of infection are seeds and crop stubbles from previous harvest. To tell leaf scald from leaf blight, immerse cut leaves in clear water for 5−10 minutes, if no ooze comes out, then it is leaf scald.

Biological Control

No alternative treatment has been found so far against this disease.

Chemical Control

Always consider an integrated approach with preventive measures together with biological treatments if available. The use of benomyl, carbendazim, quitozene and thiophanate-methyl in a seed-soak treatment reduced infection by M. albescens. In the field, foliar spraying of benomyl, fentin acetate, edifenphos, and validamycin significantly reduce the incidence of leaf scald. Foliar application of captafol, mancozeb, and copper oxychloride also reduces the severity of the fungal disease. Combinations of these chemicals were also effective.

Preventive Measures

    When available, use resistant varietiesMake the spacing between plants somewhat widerThe maintenance of silicon levels in soil also results in higher yields and a reduction of diseaseAvoid excessively high rates of nitrogenSplit applications of nitrogen during the tillering stageRemove of weeds and infected rice plants from the field




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