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These fungi show crop-specific patterns of damage. In some cases, the plants show signs of wilting even at a juvenile stage, with leaves turning yellow. On mature plants, a slight wilting often appears on parts of the plants. This is most common during the warmest hours of the day. Leaves later turn chlorotic, often only on one side. Longitudinal sections of the stems show a brownish-red discoloration of the internal tissues, first at the base, later up the stem.
Fusarium wilt grows in the transport tissue of plants, affecting water and nutrient supply. Plants can be infected directly via their root tips or through wounds in the roots. Once the pathogen has become established in an area, it stays active for several years.
Several biological control agents, including bacteria and nonpathogenic strains of F. oxysporum that compete with the pathogenes have been used to control Fusarium wilt in some crops. Some soils suppress the growth of Fusarium. Adjusting the soil pH to 6.5-7.0 and using nitrate rather than ammonium as nitrogen source can reduce the severity of the disease.
Always consider an integrated approach with preventive measures together with biological treatments if available. Apply calcium cyanamide on contaminated locations if no other measures are effective.