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Pea Blue Butterfly

Pea Blue Butterfly

Lampides boeticus

insect

In a Nutshell

    Boreholes from the larvae appear on the floral buds, flowers and green podsLarvae feed on inner contents of pods, leaving characteristic round holes at one endHoney dew secretion and ants are present close to entry holesIf unchecked, infestation can lead to heavy yield loss

Hosts: %1$s

· Gram

Symptoms

Most of the damage to plant parts is inflicted during the larval stage. Larvae feed on the inner contents of the plant and on the seeds within the pods. Initial symptoms appear as boreholes on the floral buds, flowers and green pods soon after the larvae hatch. Damage on the pods is characterized by round holes and frass deposits at the entry point, usually close to the pod end. Honey dew secretions and movement of black ants around the secretion points can also be observed. Black discoloration indicates pod decay. Since the larvae directly attack the pods, the infestation leads to heavy yield loss.

Trigger

The damage on plants is mainly caused by the larvae of Lampides boeticus. Adults are metallic to darkish blue and have a long bluish-gray body with blue hairs. Black spots are visible in the bottom of the hindwings, along with a elongated appendage. The underside is characterized by numerous irregular white and brown stripes and brown spots, usually near the edge of the wing. Females lay round pale blue or white eggs singly on floral buds, flowers, immature pods and on growing shoots and leaves. The larvae are pale green to brown, slightly round and look like slugs. The larval stage can last two to four weeks depending on the temperature.

Biological Control

The infestation can be controlled effectively through the release of natural enemies in the field. Egg and larvae parasitoids such as Trichogramma chilotraeae, Trichogrammatoidea bactrae, Cotesia specularis, Hyperencyrtus lucoenephila and Litrodromus crassipes may have a good effect. Biopesticides containing Paecilomyces lilacinus and Vetricillium lecani can be used as foliar application to control the infestation. Plant extracts from the neem tree also work effectively against the larvae.

Chemical Control

Always consider an integrated approach with preventive measures and biological treatments if available. Chemical treatment may not be necessary if populations of natural enemies are preserved. If insecticides are needed, products containing cyhalothrin, carbaryl, deltamethrin or thiosulfuric acid can be sprayed onto the foliage. Sprays of deltamethrin and thiosulfuric acid at the hatching of eggs of the third and sixth generation give levels of control of between 80 and 90 %. By day 3 post-treatment, carbaryl gave complete control of larvae in cowpea. Cyhalothrin has been used to effectively control the pest in mung bean. Keep in mind that the pea blue butterfly might develop resistance to these chemicals.

Preventive Measures

    Plant tolerant or resistant varieties if available in your areaAvoid early or late sowing because it will favor the pestKeep a wider distance between plantsMonitor your plants or field for any sign of the pestHandpick and destroy larvae found in the seedbeds or fieldsEnsure regular soil digging to expose larvae and pupaeAvoid indiscriminate insecticide use that destroys natural enemies of the pest