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Bacterial Black Spot of Mango

Bacterial Black Spot of Mango

Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. mangiferaeindicae

bacteria

In a Nutshell

    Irregular black, water-soaked spots on leaves, delineated by veinsLater, leaf spots dry out and turn light brown or ash-gray, in severe cases resulting in defoliationFruits initially display small black spots, later turning to black gum-oozing craters

Hosts: %1$s

· Mango · Cashew

Symptoms

The main symptoms of bacterial black spot of mango appear on leaves and fruits but twig and branch may also be affected in severe cases. Initially, small black and water-soaked lesions occur on the leaves. These spots are surrounded by chlorotic margins and limited by the veins. As the disease progresses, the spots dry up and leaves can shed, leading to defoliation. In early stages, water-soaked, light spots appear on infected fruits. Later, they evolve into dark star-shaped craters, oozing infectious gum that attracts opportunistic pathogens. Light infection causes decreased fruit quality whereas severely infected fruits might fall off. Lesions can appear resulting in black and cracked branches and stems, which in turn may weaken the stability of the tree.

Trigger

The disease is caused by a strain of the bacteria Xanthomonas axonopodis. It can survive up to 8 months in living tissues. It infects trees through wounds and natural openings. The pathogens can spread from tree to tree or between fields by wind-driven rain or through implements used for management activities such as pruning. Alternatively, the spreading occurs via infected plant material or through contact in the case of fruits. The most favorable temperature for an infection with bacterial black spot is between 25 and 30 °C. High humidity also fosters infections. Windbreaks or the planting of tree species with dense foliage around the orchard can reduce the spreading of the disease.

Biological Control

Regular spraying with products containing copper oxychloride has proven effective in preventing and decimating infections.

Chemical Control

Always consider an integrated approach with preventive measures together with biological treatments if available. Sprays containing carbendazim, thiophanate-methyl or benzimidazole can be applied to control bacterial black spot of mango.

Preventive Measures

    Be careful to use healthy planting and grafting materialUse resistant varieties if availableEnsure good ventilation of the treesRegularly remove infected twigs, branches and fruitsAvoid mechanical damage to the mango trees during field workProtect them from strong winds and heavy rains with windbreaksInfected fruits and tree material should be destroyedDisinfect working tools and equipments