Both the nymphs and adults cause damage by sucking the sap from the central surface of the young leaves. As they suck, they inject toxins into the plant tissue. This results in whitening of veins and chlorotic patches in a typical 'V' shape, especially at the tips of leaflets. As the infestation gets more severe, the crop turns yellow and presents a scorched appearance known as 'hopper burn'. Heavy infestation can cause stunted growth and severe yield losses.
Jassids are very active hoppers with a yellowish-green, elongated bodies that are shaped like a wedge. The wings are long, narrow, semi-transparent and pale green with slightly greyish distal ends. The nymphs look alike but are wingless. Females insert eggs into the leaf tissue close to the midrib or into the petiole. The eggs hatch after about a week and start to eat up the surrounding leaf tissues. Larvae can be found at the under surface of the leaf.
Praying mantis, long horned grasshoppers, dragon flies and spiders can help to control jassid populations. Foster predators populations such as lacewings (Chrysoperla carnea) and flies of the genus Crossopalpus that are present in the field naturally. Solutions of the green muscardine fungus or neem oil can also be sprayed.
Use an integrated approach with preventive measures and biological treatment whenever possible. Apply safe chemical insecticides at recommended doses only if the insect population crosses the economic threshold level. Leaf sprays with dimethoate can be used to control populations.
If available, plant tolerant varieties.,Sow either earlier or later to avoid peak populations.,Eradicate weeds and alternative hosts.,Keep an eye on the biodiversity in and around your field.,Intercrop with pearl millet or lablab beans and avoid castor beans.,Monitor, collect and destroy affected plant parts.,Irrigate at least once to avoid prolonged mid season drought.,Consider crop rotation with non-host plants.